What Are The Key Components of an AC Unit?

Learn about the essential components of a central air unit and AC outdoor unit with Sandium. Visit us to discover the working of the central air conditioning system!

Updated on Oct 22, 2023
5 min read
What Are The Key Components of an AC Unit?

An air conditioner is a complex equipment with numerous parts that need to work in sync to keep your Bay Area home comfortable. There are two major parts to central air conditioning systems – indoor and outdoor unit. These are explained in detail in this post.

The Indoor Unit

The furnace lives inside your home and works yearlong. These are a few key components in the furnace that play a huge role in the cooling process.

1. Thermostat

The thermostat works just like a remote control to switch on a TV. It controls the temperature and cooling cycle as well.

2. Evaporator Coil

The evaporator coil is why your air conditioner can cool your house. Refrigerant is the miracle working fluid that pulls humidity and heat from ambient air. Liquid refrigerant is pumped in to the evaporator coil from the outdoor condenser. The coil turns the refrigerant into vapor form by cooling it. Heat and humidity from indoor air gets absorbed by the refrigerant which is then sent back to the condenser unit.

3. Expansion Valve

This valve determines the amount of refrigerant allowed in the evaporator coil. It is located in the refrigerant line and ensures the system performs at peak efficiency.

4. Blower

The blower is responsible for pushing air over the evaporator coil and through the ductwork into your home.

5. Blower Motor

The blower fan is rotated evenly through the blower motor.

6. Filter

Air filter is by far the most important component in the HVAC system. It performs an important job of pulling contaminants from the treated air. Different types of filters can pull dust, dander, bacteria, and other particles from the air.

7. Ductwork

Ducts guide treated air in your home like a highway. These are made from flexible metal tubing and are located in the attic, walls, and under the house.

8. Damper

Dampers direct the air to go to particular areas in the house. Without dampers you won't get even cooling your home.

9. Supply and Return vents

Air in a house is recycled. The entry and exit points are known as supply and return vents.

Outdoor Unit

The outdoor unit is known as condenser and has 4 essential parts:

1. Condenser Coil

The condenser coil is opposite to the evaporator coil. It takes the heat from air and releases it into the outside atmosphere. Condenser coils become very hot when the refrigerant finds its way back in. Heat remains on the surface till it is released outside.

2. Fan

Condenser coil can easily pull heat from the refrigerant. However, without a working fan, the heat cannot be expelled outside. The condenser fan works to constantly move heat away from the condenser unit. It makes the condenser ready to pull more heat from the vapor refrigerant. It also prevents the condenser unit from overheating.

3. Compressor

The refrigerant moved from the furnace to the condenser through the compressor. It converts vapor (hot) refrigerant into liquid (cool) form. The refrigerant is sent to the evaporator coil first where is pulls heat and humidity from the ambient air. The compressor compresses the refrigerant back into liquid state in the condenser.

4. Refrigerant Line

The refrigerant line allows the condenser to move from the furnace into the condenser and back. 

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