9 Components That Are Vital to Smooth AC Function

Get to know about the essential components of an AC system. Learn about AC components, including the AC condenser, in-room air conditioner, and more at Sandium!

Updated on Oct 22, 2023
5 min read
9 Components That Are Vital to Smooth AC Function

Some consider the air conditioner one of the most useful inventions of the last century. Too bad some hard core environmentalists don’t believe we should be using them. Well, if they want to live in misery and in fantasy land – they can do that. Moreover, it certainly is one of the most used home appliances in Northern California during the summers. An increasing number of people rely heavily on their air conditioning systems during the hot summer months.

It becomes crucial, therefore, that everyone should gain some basic knowledge about an air conditioner, especially its major components and their functions. We will briefly discuss various air conditioner parts, and their role in the working of an air conditioning unit.

1. Compressor

The combined gas law states that the temperature increases with an increase in pressure. The compressor pressurizes the low-pressure refrigerant gas, raising its temperature and pressure, before it enters the condenser. Due to the tendency of heat to move from warm surfaces to cooler ones, the heat in the high-temperature refrigerant gas moves outdoors to the cooler air. This is the process that enables an air conditioner to take the warm air in your room and cool it down.

2. Condenser Coil

The condenser coil, present in the outdoor air conditioning unit, is one of the most critical components of your air conditioning system. The condenser coil facilitates the transfer of heat to the air outdoors. It is attached to a fan that blows air over the coils, enabling the refrigerant to release heat, and turn into a liquid that flows into the expansion valve.

3. Evaporator Coil

The evaporator coil, an important part of the air conditioner, is exactly the opposite of condenser coil in its function. Just as condenser coils use the condenser fan to enable the transfer of heat, the evaporator coils depend on the fan in the indoor air handler (the blower) to blow air over the coils. The coil’s copper tubes receive the liquid refrigerant that leaves the expansion valve, and convert it into a low-temperature gas.

4. Expansion Valve

The refrigerant, even in its liquid state, needs to be cooled down to enter the evaporator coils. A thermostatic expansion valve depressurizes the refrigerant to bring down its temperature, converting it into a gaseous state again. The valve also regulates the quantity of refrigerant entering the evaporator.

5. Air Handler & Blower

The air handler unit, and the blower, work in tandem to suck in the warm air from the room and blow the cool air back. These two units ensure that the cold air is evenly distributed throughout the room.

6. Thermostat

If the temperature inside the room is not controlled and maintained properly, the air conditioner parts could malfunction. The thermostat plays an important role in maintaining the optimum temperature in your house.

7. Filters

The filter in an air conditioning unit protects the main unit by filtering out dust and dirt particles present in the air, from getting into the AC. A clogged filter hampers the compressor performance, and that of the entire air conditioning system.

8. Drain Pipes

The role of the drain pipes is to collect droplets of water formed when hot air converts into cool air during the condensation process. The drain pipes carry the collected water out of the air conditioner unit. Clogged drain pipes can cause water leakage from the unit.

9. Refrigerant

If the compressor is the heart of your air conditioning system, you can say the refrigerant is the lifeblood. The refrigerant, or coolant, is a special fluid that constantly changes between the liquid and gaseous state at different points in the refrigeration cycle, to carry heat from the inside of your house to the outside. 

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